Spatial partitioning of biological processes is a phenomenon fundamental to life. At the cellular level, proteins function to catalyse, conduct and control most processes at specific times and locations. Hence, the activity of how cells generate and maintain their spatial organization is central to understanding the mechanisms of the living cell. Protein function is predominantly determined by its subcellular localization, due to that cellular compartments, such as organelles, offer environments with different physiological conditions, constituents and interaction partners.

The "Human Cell" chapters provide a knowledge-based analysis of the human cellular proteomes and an entry into the Human Protein Atlas from different perspectives. The Cell Atlas can be explored on the basis of the transcriptomes of a large panel of human cell lines. This includes the classification of genes with variable and stable expression across the panel. Furthermore, various spatiotemporal aspects of the human proteome can be explored, such as the organelle proteomes, the multilocalizing proteome and the proteome showing single-cell variation. The human proteome can further be explored based on the expression in different organelles and cellular structures. This enables the definition of "organelle proteomes" that indicates the distinct organelle structures and functions. Each separate chapter includes a description of a particular proteome and explorations of protein expression patterns, a complete list of proteins that build a proteome, as well as examples of detailed images illustrating the subcellular spatial distribution patterns.


Explore the various proteomes

Explore the cellular and spatiotemporal proteomes in this interactive database, covering transcriptomes and numerous catalogues with detailed information about spatial protein distribution.

Cell line transcriptome

Organelle proteome

Multilocalizing proteome

Cell cycle dependent proteome


Explore the proteomes of specific organelles

Explore protein expression and spatial distribution in all major cellular organelles and structures in this interactive database.

Nuclear membrane
- Nuclear membrane
- Nucleoli
- Nucleoli fibrillar center
- Nuclear bodies
- Nuclear speckles
- Nucleoplasm
- Nucleus
Actin Filaments
- Actin filaments
- Focal adhesion sites
- Centrosome
- Microtubule organizing center
- Aggresome
- Cytoplasmic bodies
- Cytosol
- Rods & rings
Intermediate Filaments
- Intermediate filaments
- Cytokinetic bridge
- Microtubule ends
- Microtubules
- Midbody
- Midbody ring
- Mitotic spindle
- Mitochondria
Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
- Golgi apparatus
Plasma Membrane
- Cell junctions
- Plasma membrane
Secreted proteins
- Secreted proteins
- Endosomes
- Lipid droplets
- Lysosomes
- Peroxisomes
- Vesicles