The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining in 20 different cancers. The assay and annotation is described here.
This page starts with information about the protein evidence and, when applicable, also protein class. Below the summary, a selection of four standard cancer tissue samples is displayed as representative of the overall staining pattern. From left: colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. An additional 5th image can be added as a complement.
Disease related genes, Enzymes, Potential drug targets, Predicted intracellular proteins
Evidence at protein level
The cancer tissue summary page shows antibody staining in 20 different cancers. The assay and annotation is described here.
For each cancer, the fraction of samples with antibody staining/protein expression level high, medium, low, or not detected are provided by the blue-scale color-coding (as described by the color-coding scale in the box to the right). The length of the bar represents the number of patient samples analyzed (max=12 patients). The images and annotations can be accessed by clicking on the cancer name or protein expression bar. If more than one antibody is analyzed, the tabs at the top of the staining summary section can be used to toggle between the different antibodies. The tooltip function displays additional data for the features in the staining summary view.
Next to the cancer staining data, the protein expression data of normal tissues or specific cell types corresponding to each cancer are shown and protein expression levels are indicated by the blue-scale color coding.
At the bottom of the page, a summary of the overall protein expression pattern across the analyzed cancer tissues as well as information about literature conformity are presented.
Testicular cancers exhibited moderate to strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. Many cases of prostate, thyroid and hepatocellular carcinomas as well as a few cases of gliomas and melanomas showed moderate staining. The remaining tumors were in general negative.
Testicular cancers displayed several cases with strong cytoplasmic positivity. Glioma, prostate and liver cancers showed moderate staining.
Gene information from Ensembl and Entrez, as well as links to available gene identifiers are displayed here. Information was retrieved from Ensembl if not indicated otherwise.
AASS (HGNC Symbol)
Aminoadipate-semialdehyde synthase (HGNC Symbol)
Entrez gene summary
This gene encodes a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in the mammalian lysine degradation pathway. The N-terminal and the C-terminal portions of this enzyme contain lysine-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, respectively, resulting in the conversion of lysine to alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde. Mutations in this gene are associated with familial hyperlysinemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
The protein browser displays the antigen location on the target protein(s) and the features of the target protein. The tabs at the top of the protein view section can be used to switch between the different splice variants to which an antigen has been mapped.
At the top of the view, the position of the antigen (identified by the corresponding HPA identifier) is shown as a green bar. A yellow triangle on the bar indicates a <100% sequence identity to the protein target.
Under the antigens, the maximum percent sequence identity of the protein to all other proteins from other human genes is displayed, using a sliding window of 10 aa residues (HsID 10) or 50 aa residues (HsID 50) (read more).
If a signal peptide is predicted by a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius (turquoise) and/or transmembrane regions (orange) are predicted by MDM, these are displayed.
Low complexity regions are shown in yellow and InterPro regions in green. Common (purple) and unique (grey) regions between different splice variants of the gene are also displayed (read more), and at the bottom of the protein view is the protein scale.
The protein information section displays alternative protein-coding transcripts (splice variants) encoded by this gene according to the Ensembl database.
The ENSP identifier links to the Ensembl website protein summary, while the ENST identifier links to the Ensembl website transcript summary for the selected splice variant. The data in the UniProt column can be expanded to show links to all matching UniProt identifiers for this protein.
The protein classes assigned to this protein are shown if expanding the data in the protein class column. Parent protein classes are in bold font and subclasses are listed under the parent class.
The Gene Ontology terms assigned to this protein are listed if expanding the Gene ontology column. The length of the protein (amino acid residues according to Ensembl), molecular mass (kDalton), predicted signal peptide (according to a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius) and the number of predicted transmembrane region(s) (according to MDM) are also reported.
Enzymes ENZYME proteins Oxidoreductases MEMSAT3 predicted membrane proteins SPOCTOPUS predicted membrane proteins THUMBUP predicted membrane proteins Predicted intracellular proteins Disease related genes Potential drug targets Protein evidence (Kim et al 2014) Protein evidence (Ezkurdia et al 2014)