THE HUMAN PROTEIN ATLAS BLOG

Focusing on Prognostic Genes in Lung Cancer

2017-10-13
Cancer Immunohistochemistry Lung cancer Pathology Atlas TCGA

Figure 1. Immunohistochemical staining of MPC1 using antibody HPA045119 shows a differential expression pattern in samples from lung cancer patients.

As part of the release of the Pathology Atlas, the Human Protein Atlas Blog will each week present a brief and informative summary where we highlight genes with prognostic association in different cancer forms. If you missed last week's blog post about prognostic genes in ovarian cancer, click here.

This week, we will focus on Lung cancer one of the deadliest cancers in the world today.

Lung cancer patients have a poor outcome with a 5-year survival rate of 13.6% in men and 19.4% in women. Late diagnosis and lack of effective treatments are considered to contribute to poor prognosis...Read more


Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month

2017-09-29
Cancer Immunohistochemistry Ovarian cancer awareness Ovarian cancer Pathology Atlas TCGA

Figure 1. Immunohistochemical staining of EPCAM using antibody CAB055098 shows differential expression in samples from ovarian cancer patients.

In this week's Pathology Atlas blog post, we highlight genes with prognostic association to ovarian cancer , as September is National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month in the US. Ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequent cause of cancer death in women, and 50% of all ovarian cancers are diagnosed in women older than 65 years of age.

Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is one of the most common gynecologic malignancy. There are five subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma, of which high-grade serous carcinoma is the most common...Read more


Focusing on prognostic genes in breast cancer

2017-09-07
Breast Cancer Cancer Immunohistochemistry Pathology Atlas TCGA

Figure 1. Immunohistochemical staining of CBX3 using antibody HPA004902 shows a differential nuclear expression in samples from breast cancer patients.

The Pathology Atlas, recently published in Science presents key proteins associated with different cancer types. This week, we will focus on breast cancer and proteins related to cancer prognosis.

Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer form in women worldwide. The cancer can roughly be classified as ductal or lobular breast cancer depending on the origin. The majority of breast cancers develop sporadically, but for 5-10% of patients there is an inherited factor associated with increased breast cancer risk, namely the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Women with abnormal BRCA1 or BRCA2 have higher risk of developing breast cancer...Read more


New Pathology Atlas maps the genes involved in cancer and promotes personalized cancer medicine

2017-08-17
Cancer Human Protein Atlas Pathology Atlas

Pathology Atlas principle

A new Pathology Atlas is launched today with an analysis of all human genes in all major cancers showing the consequence of their corresponding protein levels for overall patient survival. The difference in expression patterns of individual cancers observed in the study strongly reinforces the need for personalized cancer treatment based on precision medicine. In addition, the systems level approach used to construct the Pathology Atlas demonstrates the power of "big data" to change how medical research is performed.

The dream of personalized treatment for cancer patients takes a major step forward today with the launch by Swedish researchers of the Human Pathology Atlas...Read more


NIFK interacts with the proliferation marker Ki-67

2017-05-24
Cancer Cancer Atlas Image of the month Immunohistochemical staining KI-67 Melanoma Pathology Atlas Skin cancer

Skin with growth of a cutaneous melanoma expressing the protein NIFK.

Melanoma is a common form of cancer in the skin and among skin cancers it is the most deadly form. Melanoma originates from cells of melanocytic origin and most typically begins as a small intraepidermal tumor (melanoma in situ). As the tumor continues to grow and progress, tumor cells invade the epidermis and eventually spread to regional lymph nodes and subsequently via hematogenic spread to distant organs. Tumor thickness of the primary tumor is the most important determining prognostic factor and thus is early discovery of key importance for survival...Read more


Cancer biomarkers identified

2017-01-23
Biomarkers Breast Cancer Cancer Immunocytochemistry Renal Cell Carcinoma

Gabriela Gremel, involved in both studies on cancer biomarkers

In two recent publications the group of Fredrik PontÚn in Uppsala has identified two very strong, independent biomarkers for the prognostic stratification of breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma.

Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of cancer affecting the kidney and there is an unmet clinical need for better prognostic and diagnostic tools for it. Diagnosis and subtyping of renal cell carcinoma are achieved through the morphological analysis of tumor sections. The application of immunohistochemistry can reveal important additional clues during the diagnostic work-up...Read more


The cancer proteome

2016-08-09
Cancer Immunocytochemistry Proteome

Tumor protein p53 in colorectal cancer

Cancer can be defined as a common heterogeneous and potentially deadly disease that affects approximately 1/3 of the human population. The common denominator for cancer is the development of an uncontrolled growth of cells that eventually leads to multiple organ failure and death.

The cancer proteome is based on genes that are implicated in cancer. Expression of these genes in normal cells contributes to normal growth, survival and function, whereas dysregulated expression, including overexpression, loss of expression or expression of a defect protein in cancer cells contributes to ungoverned tumor growth...Read more


Profiling cancer testis antigens

2016-07-12
Cancer Testis

Dijana Djureinovic, the first author of the study

In a recent publication in JCI Insight researchers from the Human Protein Atlas have described the expression of the currently known cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) in non-small cell lung cancer, and have added 50 new CTAs to this list.

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in Sweden and worldwide. Most patient present with advanced disease and have a short life expectancy despite modern therapy.

Dijana Djureinovic is a PhD student in the group of Cecilia Lindskog at Science for Life Laboratory. She started her PhD studies two years ago, but worked in the project before that, on antibody validation...Read more


Biomarker for prognosis in endometrial carcinoma

2016-03-01
ASRGL1 Cancer Endometrial Carcinoma Microarray Tissue Atlas

Reduced expression of ASRGL1 was significantly associated with poor prognosis and reduced disease-specific survival.

Loss of ASRGL1 expression is an independent biomarker for disease-specific survival in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

The ASRGL1 protein is a novel, powerful, and independent biomarker for prognosis in endometrial carcinoma.

In a recent study by scientists from the Human Protein Atlas project and collaborators at the University of Bergen and University of Turku, the l-asparaginase (ASRGL1) protein was identified as an endometrial carcinoma biomarker candidate by searches in the HPA-database.

ASRGL1 expression was immunohistochemically evaluated on two large independent endometrial carcinoma cohorts using an extensively validated antibody...Read more


The human prostate proteome

2016-02-09
Cancer Prostate Proteome Tissue Atlas

The definition of the prostate specific proteome provides a starting point for further studies exploring the molecular repertoire of the prostate.

Novel biomarkers for prostate cancer found while defining the prostate specific transcriptome and proteomeTo better understand the function of the prostate and diseases associated with it, it is important to explore the molecular constituents that make up the prostate gland.

In a recent study by scientists from the Human Protein Atlas project and colleagues both gene and protein expression profiles were investigated in prostate tissue and compared to 26 other human tissues. The aim was to identify potential prostate specific biomarkers for potential clinical use...Read more


From primary to malignant - what changes?

2016-01-19
Cancer Malignant transformation Model system Proteomics Transcriptomics

Three examples of differentially expressed proteins during malignant transformation in a four step fibroblast cell line model.

Majority of differentially expressed genes are down-regulated during malignant transformation in a four-stage model

From primary to malignant - what changes? Bridging transcriptomics and proteomics to reveal the molecular changes during malignant transformation in a four-step cancer cell line model

In order to find out more about the changes that occur when a primary cell is transformed into an aggressive cancer cell, integration of biological information has proven to be successful. By bridging transcriptomics and antibody based proteomics data we showed how the major changes during malignant transformation could be scrutinized...Read more


A prognosis based classification of uterin cancer

2015-12-01
Cancer Microarray Tissue Atlas Undifferentiated uterine sarcoma

The ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus

A prognosis based classification of undifferentiated uterine sarcomas: Identification of mitotic index, hormone receptors and YWHAE-FAM22 translocation status as predictors of survival

Undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (UUS) are rare tumors with a heterologous biology and a poor prognosis.

In a recent study by scientists from the Human Protein Atlas project and colleagues, the relevance of clinicopathology, mitotic index, translocation status (YWHAE-FAM22), and a number of biomarker candidates were examined for correlation with the prognosis of these tumors. The protein biomarkers P53, P16, Ki-67, Cyclin-D1, ER, PR, and ANLN were evaluated by immunohistochemistry...Read more


Prognostic impact of COX-2 in lung cancer

2015-11-17
Cancer COX-2 Lung cancer Microarray Tissue Atlas

COX-2 expression in stroma

Prognostic impact of COX-2 in NSCLC: a comprehensive compartment-specific evaluation of tumor and stromal cell expression

In a study performed by scientists at Uppsala University, in collaboration with Gothenburg University and the Human Protein Atlas project, the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was evaluated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...Read more


Elevated expression of CD93 in brain tumor

2015-11-03
Brain cancer Cancer CD93 Glioblastoma Tissue Atlas

CD93 expression in pathological blood vessels in a case of high-grade malignant glioma

Elevated expression of the C-type lectin CD93 in the glioblastoma vasculature regulates cytoskeletal rearrangements that enhance vessel function and reduce host survival

CD93 encodes for a cell-surface glycoprotein and is expressed in myeloid cells and endothelial cells. CD93 has recently been identified as an important gene in primary tumor angiogenesis and the corresponding protein has been shown to have proangiogenic properties. In the present study the role of CD93 in malignant glioma was analyzed. The effect on glioblastoma vessels and tumor growth was studied...Read more