THE HUMAN PROTEIN ATLAS BLOG

Prognostic genes in pancreatic cancer

2017-11-17
Cancer Immunohistochemistry Pancreatic cancer Pathology Atlas TCGA tissue

Figure 1. Immunohistochemical staining of MUC1 shows differential expression pattern, high (left panel) and low (right panel) in

Next in our series of articles on cancer is Pancreatic cancer, a relatively rare cancer associated with very poor prognosis. The vast majority of tumors originate from ductal cells and a small fraction are endocrine tumors. Over 80% of pancreatic cancers develop at ages above 60 years and most tumors are detected at late stages of the disease when the cancer has spread beyond the pancreas.

There is a great need for biomarkers to facilitate early detection and help establishment of diagnosis. Smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and long-lasting inflammation in the pancreas are some of the factors that lead to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer...Read more


650 genes associated with prognosis in Lung Cancer

2017-10-13
Cancer CancerProteomics Immunohistochemistry Lung cancer Pathology Atlas Proteomics TCGA

Figure 1. Immunohistochemical staining of MPC1 using antibody HPA045119 shows differential expression pattern, both high (left panel) and low (right panel), in samples from lung cancer patients.

As part of the release Pathology Atlas release, the Human Protein Atlas will each week present a brief and informative summary highlighting genes with prognostic association in different cancer forms. This week, we will focus on Lung cancer one of the deadliest cancers in the world today.

Lung cancer patients have a poor outcome with a 5-year survival rate of 13.6% in men and 19.4% in women. Late diagnosis and lack of effective treatments are considered to contribute to poor prognosis. Smoking is the leading risk factor and is responsible for 70-90% of the lung cancer cases. Lung cancer can be divided into small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...Read more


Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month

2017-09-29
Cancer Immunohistochemistry Life Science Ovarian cancer awareness Pathology Atlas Plasma Profilling TCGA tissue

Figure 1. Immunohistochemical staining of EPCAM using antibody CAB055098 shows differential expression, both high (left panel) and low (right panel) in samples from ovarian cancer patients.

In this week's Pathology Atlas blog post, we highlight genes with prognostic association to ovarian cancer , as September is National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month in the US. Ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequent cause of cancer death in women, and 50% of all ovarian cancers are diagnosed in women older than 65 years of age.

Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is one of the most common gynecologic malignancy. There are five subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma, of which high-grade serous carcinoma is the most common...Read more


Awareness for prostate cancer

2017-09-27
European Prostate Cancer Awareness Day Immunohistochemistry Life Science Pathology Atlas Prostate cancer Prostate Cancer Awareness Month TCGA tissue

Figure 1. Immunohistochemical staining of ODF2 using antibody HPA001874 shows differential expression in samples from prostate cancer patients.

As part of the release of the Pathology Atlas, the Human Protein Atlas Blog presents brief and informative summaries of most cancers, and highlight genes with prognostic association in the different cancer forms. The Pathology Atlas is an open access database which includes quantitative transcriptomics data and spatial proteomics data of the major human cancer types that have been analyzed using a systems level approach.

We focus on prostate cancer in this week's blog post to highlight Prostate Cancer Awareness Month in North America and the European Prostate Cancer Awareness Day on the 27th of September...Read more


Human Protein Atlas presentations at the 16th HUPO World Congress

2017-09-14
Affinity proteomics Cell Atlas Conference Human Protein Atlas Immunofluorescence microscopy Immunohistochemistry Sub-cellular structures Tissue Atlas

Next week on the 17th to 21th of September, the human proteome organization (HUPO), is hosting the 16th HUPO World Congress in Dublin, Ireland. Several Human Protein Atlas-associated researchers will attend the meeting and represent the project in various sessions, including plenary and invited lectures, oral presentations and poster sessions.

HUPO is an international scientific organization representing and promoting proteomics through international cooperation and collaborations by fostering the development of new technologies, techniques and training...Read more


Focusing on prognostic genes in breast cancer

2017-09-07
Breast Cancer Cancer Cancer Genome Atlas Immunohistochemistry Pathology Atlas TCGA tissue

Figure 1. Immunohistochemical staining of CBX3 using antibody HPA004902 shows a differential nuclear expression in samples from breast cancer patients.

The Pathology Atlas, recently published in Science presents key proteins associated with different cancer types. This week's news article will focus on breast cancer and proteins related to cancer prognosis.

Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer form in women worldwide. The cancer can roughly be classified as ductal or lobular breast cancer depending on the origin. The majority of breast cancers develop sporadically, but for 5-10% of patients there is an inherited factor associated with increased breast cancer risk, namely the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Women with abnormal BRCA1 or BRCA2 have higher risk of developing breast cancer...Read more


Highlighting the prognostic genes in colon cancer

2017-08-25
Cancer Colorectal cancer Immunohistochemistry Pathology Atlas

Figure 1. Immunohistochemical staining of JDP2 protein using HPA059511 antibody shows a differential expression in samples from colorectal cancer patients.

Last week the Human Protein Atlas portal was updated with a new Pathology Atlas - an interactive atlas where the expression of specific genes and their influence on patient survival in the 17 major cancer types can be explored. The Pathology Atlas includes quantitative genome-wide transcriptomics data (RNA-seq) of the 17 cancers coupled with clinical outcome and spatial proteomics data (immunohistochemistry) of more than 15,000 proteins.

During the next weeks, we will highlight different cancer types included in the analysis and also show examples of genes with unfavourable and favourable prognostic significance. This week's news article features colorectal cancer...Read more


Crystallins are proteins expressed in the human eye with a long life

2017-07-22
Eye Image of the week Immunocytochemistry Immunohistochemistry Lens proteins Pathology tissue Tissue Atlas

The beta-crystallin B2 protein, encoded by the CRYBB2 gene, is a very important structural component of the human eye lens. Immunohistochemical staining of CRYBB2 protein shows specific expression in the lens.

Previously we have highlighted proteins expressed in the human neural retina. This week's article emphasizes the cellular structure and molecular dynamics of the lens.

The main function of the lens is to focus light on the retina. The passage of light through the cornea, lens and vitreous all the way to the retinal layer of the eye is only possible due to transparency of the tissue. Although the lens is very protein-rich, light absorption and light scattering in the lens is minimal.

The lens comprises non-diving lens cells which are mainly composed of ordered proteins called crystallins...Read more


Expression of genes in mammary glands

2017-06-12
Immunohistochemistry tissue Tissue Atlas

In this week’s post, we will highlight proteins specifically expressed in a tissue with extensive plasticity - the female mammary glands. The evolutionary origin of mammary and milk gland-like structures is believed to date all the way back to 300 million years ago, and glandular secretory apocrine-like units in the skin of synapsids, an ancestor to mammals.

The mammary gland develops from the epidermis and is mainly composed of branched columnar and cuboidal epithelial cells that form distinct lobes...Read more


Pituitary gland links the nervous and the endocrine systems in the human body

2017-05-05
Brain Image of the week Immunohistochemistry Pituitary gland tissue Tissue Atlas

The pituitary gland plays a crucial role in human physiology, and together with the hypothalamus this highly conserved and elegant system form a link between the nervous and endocrine system, by controlling the functions of the thyroid, adrenal glands, and the gonads, and also regulating growth, lactation, and water preservation.

This gland, also called hypophysis, consists of two separate lobes with dual embryonic origin; the anterior (adeno) pituitary gland originates from the oral cavity, and the posterior (neural) pituitary gland develops from the neural plate...Read more


AACR Annual Meeting 2017

2017-04-04
Cancer Conference Immunohistochemistry Pathology Atlas tissue

Cecilia Lindskog and Borbala Katona in the booth

A team from the Human Protein Atlas is attending the AACR Annual Meeting 2017 in Washington DC right now. This year, the meeting covers topics on research propelling cancer prevention and cures. The Human Protein Atlas is represented by a booth where researchers give a personalized tutorial of the portal to interested visitors. In addition, a demo version of a new Pathology Atlas containing information on prognostic genes and proteins associated with clinical outcome. The Pathology Atlas focuses on 17 major cancer types in humans...Read more


CD44 as a marker of renal cancer

2017-03-31
Cancer Image of the week Immunohistochemistry Pathology Atlas Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal cell cancer is a relatively common form of human cancer. Tumors develop in the kidney and have a tendency to grow into renal veins and metastasize to distant organs without the spread to regional lymph nodes as is common for many other tumor types.

This particular case shows a papillary form of renal cell cancer that grows with papillary excrescences into cyst formations and with areas of necrosis. The tumor has been stained with an antibody (HPA005785) that recognizes the CD44 protein.

CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein and a receptor for hyaluronic acid that is involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration...Read more


The Retina and the proteins expressed within

2017-03-24
Immunohistochemistry tissue Tissue Atlas

Immunohistochemical staining of human neural retina. The brown color represents the presence of proteins found in rods and cones. A, GNGT1 is a rod protein and B, RP1 is expressed in cone cells.

More than a century ago, Piccolino M. Cajal published his groundbreaking work on the retina. At that time, Cajal was eager to confirm previous observations he had made in other neural tissues, and he considered the retina very suitable to study due to its simple organization and structure.

The human retina is a multilayered neural tissue that originates from the developing brain, and populates the innermost layer of the eye, called the inner photosensitive layer. The retina is composed of polarized photosensitive neurons called rods and cones...Read more


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